RecommendeD resources


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An Introduction to Internet Governance

An Introduction to Internet Governance (7th edition) Dr. Jovan Kurbalija. 2017, DiploFoundation

The seventh edition of An Introduction to Internet Governance by Dr. Jovan Kurbalija provides an update based on the most recent dynamic period in the history of Internet governance. It was officially launched at the 11th IGF in Mexico in December 2016, and Spanish translation is also available. Read more: English | Spanish

A Useful Internet governance Glossary of Acronym

  1. Diplo - A Useful Internet governance Glossary of Acronym (2019)

  2. ICANN - Maintained by ICANN

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a component of the system of unique identifiers ICANN helps to coordinate. It is the main naming system for the Internet. It is not the only one. Some naming systems predate the DNS, and others have been recently proposed in the wake of the blockchain approach of decentralized systems.

Proposing a new naming system is one thing. Making sure everybody on the Internet can use it is another. Alternative naming systems face a huge deployment challenge. A number of solutions exist to bridge the DNS to those parallel worlds, but they all come with their own drawbacks.

Furthermore, the lack of name space coordination, either between those alternative naming systems and the DNS, or simply among those alternative naming systems, will result in unworkable name collisions. This could lead to completely separate ecosystems, one for each alternative naming system, which would further fragment the Internet. This is the exact opposite of the vision of “one world, one Internet.” (This document is part of ICANN’s Office of the Chief Technical Officer (OCTO) document series. Please see the OCTO publication page for a list of documents in the series. If you have questions or suggestions on any of these documents, please send them to

This document is a work of the United States Government and is in the public domain (see 17 U.S.C. §105). It may be distributed and copied with acknowledgment to Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). Published in the United States of America, 2022.

Digital Inclusion in Austin Report

Diplo Foundation: Texts and Articles

The needs of people with disabilities are often not captured in machine learning data, either overwhelmed by majority data or excluded as outliers. The team behind We Count includes AI professionals, disability activists, and scholars of disability studies who aim to develop data systems and machine learning strategies that include, understand, and serve people with disabilities and other marginalized groups. From the main page, readers can click on "Learn" to find journal articles and reports on AI and disability, ethics, and policy, as well as educational and methodological resources for AI professionals. The "Initiatives" section features free upcoming and archived workshops and webinars on data science and inclusive AI topics, such as "AI Hiring System Policies," and "Bias In, Bias Out." Readers can also access transcripts of most past offerings. We Count's YouTube channel (linked in the footer of the page) includes webinar recordings and other videos, most between 30 and 90 minutes long. We Count is funded by a grant from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and supported by the Accessible Technology Program, part of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada.

ICANN's global public interest (GPI)

The global public interest (GPI) is central to many of ICANN’s primary governance documents - the Affirmation of Commitments, Bylaws, and Articles of Incorporation. Operationalizing the concept of the GPI remains a challenge, despite years of attempts to understand and define it within ICANN.

The ICANN Board identified the GPI as one of its 2019 operational priorities and carried it over to 2021. In September 2019, the Board published a discussion paper on a proposed GPI framework, which marked the beginning of a longer process to develop a framework as a toolkit for the ICANN community to consider the global public interest. A community consultation was held from September to November 2019 to gather feedback from the community, and the framework was revised accordingly.

The purpose of the GPI framework is to facilitate a bottom-up multistakeholder-driven understanding of the GPI issues relevant to each Board decision. The framework is intended to reinforce the commitment to the public interest and to demonstrate how specific recommendations, advice, and public comments are in the global public interest. The framework will not change the process by which decisions are made.

Internet/Broadband Factsheet

ISOC Community Network Projects: Community Network Solutions

Not everyone is online. Some places, whether it’s a remote village or a large city, need a new plan when it comes to connecting. We need solutions where the people who use the Internet are also empowered to build it. Community networks can help. These happen when people come together to build and maintain their own Internet connections. Internet by the people, for the people.

Internet Protocols and the Human Rights to Freedom of Association and Assembly - Draft (IRTF-HRPC-Association-11)

This document explores whether there is a relation between the Internet architecture and the ability of people to exercise their rights to peaceful assembly and association online. It does so by asking the question: what are the protocol development considerations for freedom of assembly and association? The Internet increasingly mediates our lives, our relationships, and our ability to exercise our human rights. As a global assemblage, the Internet provides a public space, yet it is predominantly built on private infrastructure. Since Internet protocols and architecture play a central role in the management, development, and use of the Internet, we analyze the relation between protocols, architecture, and the rights to assemble and associate to mitigate infringements on those rights. This document concludes that the way in which infrastructure is designed and implemented impacts people's ability to exercise their freedom of assembly and association. It is therefore recommended that the potential impacts of Internet technologies should be assessed, reflecting recommendations of various UN bodies and norms. Finally, the document considers both the limitations on changing association and impact of "forced association" in the context of online platforms.

Internet Society - Internet Ecosystem: Who Makes the Internet Work: The Internet Ecosystem

The Internet is successful in large part due to its unique model: shared global ownership, open standards development, and freely accessible processes for technology and policy development. The Internet has enjoyed unprecedented success thanks to its open, transparent, and collaborative model. The model relies on processes that are local, bottom-up and accessible to users around the world.

Internet Society – Internet Governance

Internet governance refers to the processes that impact how the Internet is managed. As policymakers and technical experts work to connect the remaining two-thirds of the world’s nations, the WAY in which the Internet is governed will likely have an impact on how we use it and how it evolves.

Metaverse as a Form of Reality and the Impact of Metaverse in Higher Education (

In the metaverse, the characters were avatars working in a 3-dimensional virtual reality. This virtual reality existed beyond reality. The metaverse is a “the post-reality universe”; a perpetual and persistent multiuser environment in which physical reality and digital virtuality are merged. The virtual infrastructure needed to build a metaverse (which is in the process of being created), are: web3 technologies, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), blockchain, smart contracts, and cryptocurrencies. Web3 refers to a new iteration of the actual web2. The actual web2 is dominated by powerful providers like Google, Apple, Amazon, and other corporate tech companies. The vision for web3 is a decentralized, and thus more equitable version of the web. The aim of this paper is, first, to present the Metaverse as a form of reality in which physical reality and digital virtuality combined to provide new experiences to users; second, to discuss the implications for education, specifically for higher education, and how programs will have to be modified so that the skills obtained by graduates match those demanded by the virtual labour market. This paper builds upon a constructivist approach, combining a literature review and research on key publications.

Knowledge is powerful. This report encompasses learning from security experts, practitioners, and defenders at Microsoft to empower people everywhere to defend against cyber threats.

The data demonstrates the massive gap in actual, measured internet speeds experienced by Canadian households in rural and urban areas. For example, in April, rural download speeds were nearly 12 times slower than those enjoyed by urban Canadians. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, internet speeds have fallen for rural users, and increased for urban users, effectively widening Canada’s digital divide. (May 8, 2020)

How is the Internet governed? Who are the different actors and stakeholders in Internet governance? How did this system emerge and where is it going in the future? By taking this course, you can develop a strong understanding of Internet governance and the ecosystem of organizations and issues that are shaping the future of the Internet.

A Microsoft report raises alarm about a new kind of domain name that it says is ripe for abuse by cyber-criminals. The Digital Defense Report that Microsoft recently issued includes a typical rogue’s gallery of cyber threats, including phishing, ransomware, and supply-chain attacks. But it adds an unusual villain to the list: blockchain domains. (November, 2021)


Suggested multimedia resources to watch. Courtesy of the Virtual School on Internet Governance (VSIG) and links to other SIG's resources.

Economics from a cryptocurrency perspective with Satish Babu (Oct 2020)

October, 2020 @VSIG

Emergent Technologies an Overview with Angeles Ayala (May 2022)

May, 2022 @ VSIG

Blockchain and Decentralizaed DNS: A Hands-on Tutorial

Tom Barrett and Debbie Muzarol from will take us on a practical hands-on journey and demonstrate how you acquire a digital wallet, buy a domain name, download a 3.0 browser, and surf websites in the blockchain universe. This is the second part of the presentation on March 8, 2022, where NARALO members learned about blockchain, NFTs, decentralized domain names, and how the emergence of these technologies has given rise to countless DNS variants, new top-level domain namespaces, and alternative roots.